Populism and priorities
I used to think that populism was a good thing – the will of the people. Now I have doubts. It seems that populism represents a series of reactions to single issue problems. It is likely to result in inconsistencies – trying to have your cake and eat it. Object to wind turbines but still expect a cheap, reliable supply of electricity, for example.
“The language of priorities is the religion of socialism” – Aneurin Bevan (1949). One could say, indeed, that the language of priorities is the language of politics. But the present UK government chooses to underfund and to undermine public services. Its priorities lie elsewhere – the maximisation of private profit. The result is the concentration of wealth in a few hands. (Trickle-down economics does not work.)
The world in 2017
I move on to British trade and foreign policy. HM Government aims to abandon close ties with our European neighbours on our doorstep and to seek trade with countries far away. The promises of success appear very dubious.
Today, Europe (including the UK) finds itself situated (sandwiched) between two powerful countries – Russia and the USA – between Putin and Trump – populist leaders. Shouldn’t this be a factor in UK policy making? Isn’t the UK safer, anchored in Europe?
Satire and prophecy
Satire appears inadequate to tackle this situation. Over the centuries, satirists have bent their bows and let arrows fly. Their admirers smile. The people in power, targeted, ignore them or retaliate. As time goes by, later readers fail to understand the context of the satire unless supplied with explanatory notes.
Despite this, I feel moved to draw upon satire – in particular, that of the English poet Alexander Pope (1688-1744). I see parallels between his world and ours.
I refer to Pope’s long polemical and satirical poem, the Dunciad, where Pope creates a mock anti-goddess, who he calls “Dulness”. She represents trends in society, politics and the media towards obscurantism, selfishness, greed, cliquishness and monopolisation of power – a dystopic vision of a world governed by dunces.
I associate ‘Dulness’, indeed, with certain 21st century trends, for example, “post-truth” and “fake news” (also known simply as lies).
Here I quote from the beginning and end of the final version of the Dunciad (1743), which depict first the return and then the ultimate triumph of Dulness, in 18th century London:
In eldest time….
Dulness o’er all possessed her ancient right,
Daughter of Chaos and eternal Night:
Fate in their dotage this fair Ideot gave,
Gross as her sire, and as her mother grave,
Laborious, heavy, busy, bold, and blind,
She ruled, in native Anarchy, the mind.
Still her old Empire to restore she tries,
For, born a Goddess, Dulness never dies.
[Book I, 9-18]
She comes! She comes! The sable Throne behold
Of Night Primaeval, and of Chaos old!…
Nor public Flame, nor private, dares to shine;
Nor human Spark is left, nor Glimpse divine!
Lo! Thy dread Empire, CHAOS! is restor’d;
Light dies before thy uncreating word:
Thy hand, great Anarch! lets the curtain fall;
And Universal Darkness buries All.
[Book IV: 651-656]
In my study of the writings of Alexander Pope, I rely largely on a slim volume of literary criticism (1989), produced by David Fairer, now professor of 18th century literature at Leeds University. In his chapter on the Dunciad, he comments: “In the world of Dulness there are no objective standards, no structures of ideas against which to measure the truth” [page 154]. (Does this sound familiar?)
David Fairer concludes his chapter with a warning:
Increasingly, we are coming to understand how the mad visions of the few, combined with the passive mindless of the many, could conceivably bring the end of the world. The prophecies of The Dunciad are coming close to us, and it is becoming easier to discern a relationship between a pacifying mass culture (….), the growth of mass movements (….), and the concentration of power in the hands of a few charismatic leaders (….). The pseudo-energy of Dulness, with her flagrant appeal to selfish instincts in the guise of freedom….is a principle which is still alive, and still threatens us. [Page 158]
David Fairer’s book was published in 1989, when the Berlin Wall came down and the old Cold War was coming to an end, and optimism pervaded the world. See where we are now!
Pope’s and Fairer’s words are prophetic, indeed, and worth heeding. We ignore them at our peril.
Butt, J (ed) (1963), The Poems of Alexander Pope (one-volume), London: Routledge.
Fairer, D (1989), The Poetry of Alexander Pope, Harmondsworth: Penguin.