The Welsh Peredur (written down in the 14th century but of earlier composition), the French Perceval (11th century, by Chrétien de Troyes), and the German Parzival (circa 1200, by Wolfram von Eschenbach) – each can be called a “bildungsroman”, insofar as it traces the education, development and maturing of a young protagonist.
(Peredur starts very well, but the ending as we have it is confused; Perceval is unfinished; Parzival is very sophisticated.)
I wish to discuss two episodes about the hero, before he has gone out into the wider world, from the rural, isolated spot where his widowed mother is keeping him.
The lad and the knights
Early on, then, the young man suddenly comes across a posse of Arthurian knights. The knights ask the hero for directions, and he asks them about their equipment. So their priorities are different.
(1) In the anonymous Welsh Peredur, when the eponymous hero meets three Arthurian knights, his questions are answered readily:
‘Say, friend,’ said Owein, has thou seen a knight go hereby today or yesterday?’ ‘I know not,’ he replied, ‘what a knight is.’ ‘Such a thing as I am,’ said Owein. ‘Wert thou to tell me that which I would ask of thee, I in turn would tell thee that which thou dost ask.’ ‘I will, gladly,’ said Owein.’
[Peredur, tr G Jones & T Jones, p 184; cf White Book of Rhydderch, pp 118f]
(2) In the Perceval of Chrétien de Troyes, however, some of the five knights (passing by) treat the hero differently, when he asks questions, and they complain that he is holding them up. They comment on Perceval unfavourably:
“So help me God,” says their chief, “he’s a real ignoramus….” – “You may be perfectly certain, my lord, that the Welsh are by nature more stupid than grazing beasts; and this is one is just like a beast.”
[Perceval, tr D D R Owen, page 377]
Has the writer picked up discriminatory attitudes from the Norman French who were interacting with the Welsh in Britain at the time?
(3) Wolfram von Eschenbach’s Parzival (based here upon Perceval) reproduces this scenario, with variations. Here, the hero delays four passer-by knights with his questions: three become impatient (while their leader is more sympathetic):
The foremost lost his temper at the sight of the boy in mid-path. ‘This stupid Waleis [Welshman] is slowing us down.’ (The Waleis, I must tell you, share the same distinction as the Bavarians, but are even denser than Bavarian folk…)
[Parzival, tr A T Hatto, Book 3, p 72]
The lad and the maiden in the tent
The hero’s first encounter with a stranger, on his way to Arthur’s court, happens to be with a lady. (Note that the hero recalls his mother’s advice and applies it, or misapplies it, here.) The main thread of the three parallel stories is this: the hero enters a tent (or pavilion) and finds there a beautiful lady; he helps himself to food and drink, takes a ring from her finger, and kisses her. But the details vary a lot. I need to quote from the descriptions at some length.
(4) Note that, when Peredur reaches the pavilion, he has not eaten for “two days and two nights”. I proceed:
The maiden made him welcome and greeted him….’ My mother,’ said Peredur, ‘bade me wherever I saw meat and drink, to take it.’ ‘Go then, chieftain,’ said she, ‘to the table. And God’s welcome to thee.’ [Peredur takes half, only.] ‘My mother,’ said he, ‘bade me take a fair jewel wherever I might see it.’ ‘Take it then, friend,’ said she. ‘’Tis not I will begrudge thee.’ Peredur took the ring, and went down on his knee and gave the maiden a kiss [on her hand?], and took his steed and departed thence.
[Peredur, tr Jones & Jones, pp 185f; emphasis added; cf White Book of Rhydderch, pp 120f]
Note how polite both parties are and how generous the lady is. She is a good hostess and he is a good guest.
Given the mythological and magical elements underlying the story, it is possible that the lady has insight into Peredur’s destiny; and she may indeed be an Otherworld character (and herself an educator).
In her study of Welsh Tradition in the Grail Legends, G Goetinck states:
The meeting of Peredur with the Tent Maiden is one of the first episodes in which the hero is helped and guided by the power of the Otherworld whilst he is being trained. It is also a version of the meeting between the hero and Sovereignty….
[Goetinck, p 140]
(5) In Perceval, there are no indications of a mythological aspect to the lady, and the situation is quite different:
On the bed [in the tent], all alone, lay a young girl fast asleep….She woke with a start….The girl trembles with fear on account of the youth, who to her seems crazy….”Be on your way, lad!” she says. “Be off, before my lover sees you.” – “By my head, I’ll kiss you first, whoever it may upset,” says the youth, “because my mother told me to!” – “I’ll certainly never kiss you if I can help it,” says the maiden. “Be off…!
Perceval is much stronger than the lady: he kisses her seven times [presumably on her mouth]; and he pulls her ring (“set with a brilliant emerald”) from her finger, and puts it on his own. She bursts into tears. He adds insult to injury:
“Bless you, maiden. Now I’ll be off well rewarded – and it’s much nicer kissing you than any chambermaid in all my mother’s house, for there’s nothing bitter about your mouth!”
[Perceval, tr Owen, pp 383f]
Perceval takes food and drink, without asking permission, and departs, leaving the young woman still weeping.
Perceval, then, is cruel and unfeeling and not at all chivalric. He does not treat the young lady as his equal. He totally misapplies his mother’s advice about how to treat women. His immaturity does not excuse his behaviour. He gets off to a bad start in his career as a knight.
Perhaps the status of this lady reflects the low status of women in France, at the time, compared to the rights accorded to them in the Wales of the early Middle Ages (cf the laws attributed to Hywel Dda). From the remarks made by the lady in Perceval, it is clear that she relies on her male friend to defend her; and for her it is unfortunate that he is temporarily absent.
(6) Parzival is like Perceval, at this point in the story. (The lady is named Jeschute and she is a duchess.) The account is long and circumstantial. It reflects badly upon the hero. I quote a salient passage:
The lady wailed loudly. He paid no attention to what she said but forced her mouth to his. Wasting no time, he crushed her breast to his, duchess or no, and also took a ring. On her shift he saw a brooch and roughly tore it off. The lady was armed as women are: but to her his strength was an army’s. Nevertheless there was quite a tussle of it.
[Parzival, tr Hatto, Book 3, p 77]
The fundamental theme of the three romances is the education of the hero concerning love, chivalry and government. Evidently, Perceval and Parzival have a very long way to go before they can be regarded as educated! Peredur, however, has already mastered basic courtesy. The nature of his encounter with the lady is appropriate to the development of the overall story. Perceval and Parzival’s behaviour, by contrast, is characterised by the use of brute force, so that they come across as villains rather than heroes, at least for the interim.
The Welsh story is shorter and more concise than the continental ones. On the surface it is unsophisticated, in comparison with its continental analogues. But it has beauties and subtleties of its of its own; and in some respects it deserves to be seen as more appealing than the other two.
Jones, G and Jones, T (translators) (1949), The Mabinogion, London: J M Dent (Everyman)
Goetinck, G (1975), Peredur: A Study of Welsh Traditions in the Grail Legends, Cardiff: University of Wales Press
Goetinck, G W (editor) (1976), Historia Peredur vab Efrawc, Cardiff: University of Wales
Hatto, A T (1980), Wolfram von Eschenbach: Parzival, Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin
Owen, D D R (translator) (1987), Chrétien de Troyes: Arthurian Romances, London: J M Dent (Everyman)
Jones, R M (editor) (1960), Y Tair Rhamant, Aberystwyth: Cymdeithas Lyfrau Ceredigion